1. Amundsen, A.H. & Sagberg, F. (2003) Hours of service regulations and the risk of fatigue- and sleep-related road accidents. TOI, Oslo
  2. Anselm, D. & Hell, W. (2002) Einschlafen am Steuer: eine häufig unterschätzte Unfallursache. In: Verkerhsunfall und Fahrzeug Technik, Heft 3, pp. 62-66
  3. Arnold, P.K. & Hartley, L.R. (2001) Policies and practices of transport companies that promote or hinder the management of driver fatigue. Transportation Research Part F, 4, 1-17
  4. Axelsson, J. (2005) Long shifts, short rests and vulnerability to shift work. Doctoral Dissertation. Department of Psychology, Stockholm Unversity, Stockholm Accessed 29 January 2008:
  5. Åkerstedt, T. (1995a) Work hours, sleepiness and accidents: introduction and summary. Journal of Sleep Research, 4(2), pp.1-3
  6. Åkerstedt, T. (1995b) Work hours, sleepiness and the underlying mechanisms. Journal of Sleep Research, 4(2), pp. 15-22
  7. Åkerstedt, T. (1995c) Work hours and sleepiness. Neurophysiologie Clinique, 25(6), pp. 367-375
  8. Ǻkerstedt, T. & Gillberg, M. (1990) Subjective and objective sleepiness in the active individual. International Journal of Neuroscience, 1990, 52, pp. 29-37
  9. Ǻkerstedt, T. & Kecklund, G. (2001) Age, gender and early morning highway accidents. Journal of Sleep Research, 10(2), pp. 105-110
  10. Ǻkerstedt, T., Peters, B., Anund, A. & Kecklund, G. (2005) Impaired alertness and performance driving home from the night shift: a driving simulator study. Journal of Sleep Research, 14, pp. 17-20
  11. Berg, van den, J. & Landström, U (2006) Symptoms of sleepiness while driving and their relationship to prior sleep, work and individual characteristics. Transportation Research Part F, 9, pp. 207-227
  12. Blom, D.H.J. & Pokrony, M.L.I. (1985) Accidents of bus drivers An epidemiological approach. Doctoral dissertation. Nederlands Instituut voor Praeventieve Gezondheidszorg TNO, Leiden
  13. Bomel Ltd. (2004) Safety Culture and Work-Related Road Accidents, Road Safety Research Report No. 51. Department for Transport, HMSO, London
  14. Brookhuis, K., De Waard, D. & Mulder, B. (1994) Measuring driving performance by car-following in traffic. Ergonomics 37, pp. 427–434
  15. Brown, I. D. (1994) Driver fatigue. Ergonomics, 1994, 36, pp. 298-314
  16. Brown, I. D. (1995) Methodological issues in driver fatigue research. In: L. Hartley (Ed), Fatigue and driving: driver impairment, driver fatigue and driving simulation. , pp. 155-166. Taylor and Francis, London
  17. Buxton, S. & Hartley, L. (2001) Napping to prevent fatigue: A policy. Insurance Commission of Western Australia: 2001 Conference on Road Safety 'Road safety: gearing up for the future', 31 August 2001, Perth
  18. Charbotel, B., Chiron, M., Martin, J.L. & Bergeret, A. (2001) Work related road accidents in France. European Journal of Epidemiology, 17(8), pp. 773-778
  19. Clarke, D.D., Ward, P., Bartle, G. & Truman, W. (2005). An In-depth Study of Work-related Road Traffic Accidents. Department of Transport, London. Accessed 29 January 2008:
  20. Connor, J., Whitlock, G., Norton, R. & Jackson, R. (2001) The role of driver sleepiness in car crashes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33, pp. 31-41
  21. Connor, J., Norton, R., Ameratunga, S., Robinson, E., Wigmore, B., & Jackson, R. (2001) Prevalence of driver sleepiness in a random population-based sample of car driving. Sleep, 24, pp. 688-694
  22. Corbett, C. (2003) Car Crime, Chapter 9, pp. 177–189. (Crime and Society Series), Willan Publishing, Devon, UK
  23. Cummings, P., Koepsell, T.D., Moffat, J.M. & Rivara, F.P. (2002) Drowsiness, counter-measures to drowsiness, and the risk of a motor vehicle crash. Injury Prevention, 7, pp. 194-199
  24. Delhomme, P., Vaa, T., Meyer, T., Harland, G., Goldenbeld, C., Järmark, S., Christie, N. & Rehnova, V. (1999) Evaluated Road Safety Media Campaigns: An Overview of 265 Evaluated Campaigns and Some Meta-Analysis on Accidents. Gadget project, Work package 4, contract no. RO-97-SC.2235. Project funded by EC and partners under EU 4th Framework Programme. INRETS, France
  25. Department of Consumer and Employment Protection (2003) Developing a fatigue management plan for commercial vehicle drivers and operators. Western Australia, Cloisters Square Accessed 4 February 2008:
  26. Desmond, P.A. (1998) Driver fatigue: performance and state. In: L. Hartley (red.) Managing fatigue in transportation. Oxford, Elsevier Science, pp. 65-76
  27. Dinges, D. (1995) An overview of sleepiness and accidents. Journal of Sleep Research, 4(2), pp. 4-14
  28. Dinges, D. F. & Kribbs, N. B. (1991) Performing while sleepy: effects of experimentally induced sleepiness. In: Monk, T. H. (Ed.). Sleep, Sleepiness and Performance, 97-128. Wiley, Chicester.
  29. Dingus, T. A., Klauer, S. G., Neale, V. L., Petersen, A., Lee, S. E., Sudweeks, J., Perez, M. A., Hankey, J., Ramsey, D., Gupta, S., Bucher, C., Doerzaph, Z. R., Jermeland, J. & Knipling, R.R. (2006) The 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study: Phase II – Results of the 100-Car Field Experiment. DOT HS 810 593. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC Accessed 4 February 2008:
  30. eSafety Forum (2005) Final report and recommendations of the implementation road map working group
  31. ETSC (1998) Forging roadsides. ETSC, Brussels Accessed 8 April 2008:
  32. ETSC (2001) The role of driver fatigue in commercial road transport crashes. European Transport Safety Council ETSC, Brussels Accessed 15 January 2008:
  33. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (2000) Hours of Service of Drivers; Driver rest and sleep for safe operations. Department of Transportation 49 CFR Parts 350, 390, 394, 395 and 398, Washington, DC
  34. Feyer, A.M., Williamson, A. & Friswell, R. (1997) Balancing work and rest to combat driver fatigue: an investigation of two-up driving in Australia. Accident Analysis and Prevention 29, 541–553
  35. Fletcher, A., McCulloch, K., Baulk, S.D. & Dawson, D. (2005) Countermeasures to driver fatigue: a review of public awareness campaigns and legal approaches. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 29(5), pp. 471-476
  36. Folkard, S. (1997) Black times: temporal determinants of transport safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29, pp. 417 - 430
  37. Folkard, S. (1999) Transport Rhythm And Blues, PACTS’ 10th Westminster Lecture. PACTS, London (quoted from PACTS policy briefing on Fatigue Related Vehicle Crashes 2001 Accessed 20
  38. Groeger, J.A. (2006) Youthfulness, inexperience, and sleep loss: the problems young drivers face and those they pose for us. Injury Prevention, 12, pp. 19-24
  39. Hamelin, P. (1987) Lorry drivers' time habits in work and their involvement in traffic accident. Ergonomics, Vol 30, n°9, p.1323, Taylor & Francis, London
  40. Hamelin, P.(1992) Surveys about professional truck drivers. In: Selected readings in Transport Survey Methodology. Eucalyptus Press, Melbourne
  41. Hamelin, P. (1999) Drivers' working hours in 'Social aspects of road transport. ECMT, Paris
  42. Hargutt, V., Hoffmann, S., Vollrath, M. & Krüger, H.P. (2000) Compensation for drowsiness & fatigue - a driving simulation study. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology ICTTP, 4-7 September 2000, Bern, Switzerland
  43. Harrison, W. (2006) Fatigue and Young Drivers. Royal Automobile Association of Victoria, Victoria Accessed 29 January 2008:
  44. Haworth, N.L., Heffernan, C.J. & Horne, E.J. (1989) Fatigue in truck accidents. Report No. 3 Monash University Accident Research Centre, Victoria
  45. Häkkänen, H. & Summala, H. (2000a) Sleepiness at work among commercial truck drivers. In: Sleep, 23(1), pp. 49-57
  46. Häkkänen, H. & Summala, H. (2000b) Driver sleepiness-related problems, health status, and prolonged driving among professional heavy-vehicle drivers. In: Transportation Human Factors, 2(2), pp. 151-171
  47. Härmä, M., Tenkanen, L., Sjöblom, T., Alikoski, T., Heinsalmi, P. (1998) Combined effects of shift work and life-style on the prevalence of insomnia, sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 24(4), pp. 300-307
  48. Horne, J.A. (1992) Stay awake, stay alive. New Scientist, 1802, pp. 20-24
  49. Horne, J.A. & Reyner, L.A. (1995) Sleep related vehicle accidents. British Medical Journal, 310, 565-567
  50. Horne, J. & Reyner, L. (1999) Vehicle accidents related to sleep; a review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56 (5), pp. 289-294
  51. Horne, J. & Reyner, L. (2001) Sleep-related vehicle accidents: some guides for road safety policies. Transportation Research Part F, 4, pp. 63-73
  52. Hulst, van der, M., Meijman, T. & Rothengatter, T. (2001) Maintaining task set under fatigue: a study of time-on-task effects in simulated driving. Transportation Research Part F, 4 (2), pp. 103-118
  53. Jettinghoff, K., Houtman, I.L.D., & Evers, M. (2003) Oorzaken van vermoeidheid bij vrachtwagenchauffeurs in het beroepsgoederenvervoer. TNO-rapport 10276. TNO Arbeid, Netherlands, Hoofddorp
  54. Jettinghoff, K., Starren, A., Houtman, I. & Henstra, D. (2005) I love uitgerust achter het stuur!? Vermoeidheid in het verkeer: maatregelen in het buitenland en hun toepasbaarheid in Nederland. Twijnstra en Gudde, Amersfoort Accessed 7 February 2008:
  55. Johns, M.W. (2000) A sleep physiologist’s view of drowsy driving. Transportation Research Part F, 3, pp. 241-249
  56. Jones, C.B., Dorrian, J., Rajartnam, S.M.W. & Dawson, D. (2005) Working hours regulations and fatigue in transportation: a comparative analysis. Safety Science, 43, pp. 225-252
  57. Karrer, K., Briest, S., Vöhringer-Kuhnt, T., Baumgarten, T. & Schleir, R. (2005) Driving Without Awareness. In: Underwood, G. (Ed.) Traffic & Transport Psychology; Theory and Application, pp. 455-469. Elsevier, London
  58. Klauer, S.G., Dingus, T.A., Neale, V.L., & Carroll, R.J. (2003) The effects of fatigue on driver performance for single and team long-haul truck drivers. Proceedings of Driving Assessment 2003 - The Second International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design. Park City, Utah Accessed 29 January 2008:
  59. Klauer, S.G., Neale, V.L., Dingus, T.A., Sudweeks, J.D., & Ramsey, D.J. (2005) The Prevalence of Driver Fatigue in an Urban Driving Environment: Results from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study. Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Fatigue Management in Transportation Operations, September 2005 (TP 14620E)Accessed 4 February 2008:
  60. Krieger, J. (2007) Sleep apoea and driving: how can this be dealt with? European Respiratory Review, 16, pp. 189-195
  61. Lal, S.K.L. & Craig, A. (2001) A critical review of the psychophysiology of driver fatigue. Biological Psychology, 55, pp. 173-194
  62. Landolt, H.-P., Roth, C., Dijk, D.J., & Borbely, A.A. (1996) Late-afternoon ethanol intake affects nocturnal sleep and the sleep EEG in middle-aged men. Journal of ClinicalPsychopharmacology, 16(6), pp. 428-436
  63. Langwieder, K. & Sporner, A. (1994) Struktur der Unfälle mit Getöteten auf Autobahnen im Freistaat Bayern im Jahr 1991, HUK-Verband, Büro für KfZ-Technik, Munich
  64. Lin, C.T., Wu, R.C., Jung, T.P., Liang, S.F., Huang, T.Y.(2005) Estimating Driving Performance Based on EEG Spectrum Analysis EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 2005:19, 3165-3174
  65. Lyznicki, J M., Doege, T C., Davis, R M., & Williams, M A. (1998) Sleepiness, driving, and motor vehicle crashes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(23), pp. 1908-1913
  66. Macchi, M.M., Boulos, Z., Ranney, T., Simmons, L., & Campbell, S.S. (2002) Effects of an afternoon nap on nighttime alertness and performance in long-haul drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34, pp. 825-834
  67. Mackie, H.W. & Baas, P.H. (2007) The cost effectiveness of delineation improvement for safety. Land Transport New Zealand Research Report 322, New Zealand Accessed 29 January 2008:
  68. Mackie, R.R. & Miller, J.C. (1978) Effects of hours of service, regularity of schedules and cargo loading on truck and bus driver fatigue. DOT-HS-5-01142, Human Factors Research Inc.
  69. Matthews, G & Desmond, P.A. (2002) Task-induced fatigue states and simulated driving performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55 (2), pp. 659-686
  70. Maycock, G. (1995) Driver Sleepiness as a Factor in Car and HGV Accidents, Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), Crowthorne, Berkshire, UK
  71. Maycock, G. (1996) Sleepiness and driving: the experience of UK car drivers. Journal of Sleep Research, 5, 220-237
  72. Maycock, G. (1997) Sleepiness and driving the experience of U.K. car drivers Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29(4), pp 453-462
  73. McCartt, A.T., Hammer, M.C., & Fuller, S.Z. (1997) Work and sleep/rest factors associated with driving while drowsy experiences among long-distance truck drivers. In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (pp. 95–108). AAAM, Des Plaines, Illinois
  74. McCartt, A.T., Rohrbaugh, J.W., Hammer, M.C. & Fuller, S.Z. (2000) Factors associated with falling asleep at the wheel among long distance truck drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, pp. 493-504
  75. Milanovic, M. & Klemenjak, W. (1999) Psychologische Massnahmen gegen ermüdungsbedingte Unfälle bei Fernfarhern. Institut für Verkehrspsychologie, Vienna
  76. Miller, J.C., & Mackie R.R. (1980) Effects of irregular schedules and physical work on commercial driver fatigue and performance. In: D. J. Oborne and J. A. Levis (eds.), Human Factors in Transport Research, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York
  77. Mitler, M. M., Miller, J. C., Lipsitz, J. J., Walsh, J. K. & Wylie, C. D. (1997) The sleep of long-haul truck drivers. The New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 755-761
  78. National Transportation Safety Board (1995) Safety study: factors that affect fatigue in heavy truck accidents. NTSB Report No. SS - 95/01; NTIS No.: PB95-917001. National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, DC
  79. NCSCR/NHTSA Expert panel on driver fatigue and sleepiness (2001) Drowsy driving and automobile crashes
  80. NHTSA (2001) Drowsy driving and automobile crashes. Report of the NCSDR/NHTSA expert panel on driver fatigue and sleepiness. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington DC.
  81. Nishino S, & Kanbayashi, T. (2005) Symptomatic narcolepsy, cataplexy and hypersomnia, and their implications in the hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin system. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 9, pp. 269-310
  82. Nordbakke, S. & Sageberg, F. (2007) Sleepy at the wheel: knowledge, symptoms and behaviour among car drivers. Transportation Research Part F, 10, pp 1-10
  83. Oron-Gilad, T., & Shinar, D. (2000) Driver fatigue among military truck drivers. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 3 (4), 195-209
  84. O'Hanlon, J. F., & Kelley, G. R. (1977) Comparison of performance and physiological changes between drivers who perform well and poorly during prolonged vehicular operation. In R. R. Mackie (Ed.), Vigilance: theory, operational performance and physiological correlates (pp. 87–109). Plenum Press, New York
  85. Otmani, S., Rogé, J. & Muzet, A. (2005) Sleepiness in professional drivers: Effect of age and time of day. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, pp. 930-937
  86. Ouwerkerk, F. van (1987) Relationships between road transport working conditions, fatigue, health and traffic safety. Report VK 87-01. Traffic Research centre, Netherlands, Haren
  87. Ouwerkerk, F. van, Hoeven, W. van der, O’Hanlon, J.F. & Onnen, M. (1986) Arbeidsomstandigheden van internationale vrachtwagenchauffeurs. Rapport VK-86-04. Traffic Research Centre, Netherlands, Haren
  88. Pack, A.I., Pack, A.M., Rodgman, E., Cucchiara, A. Dinges, D.F., & Schwab, C.W. (1995) Characteristics of crashes attributed to the driver having fallen asleep. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 27(6), pp. 769-775
  89. Philip, P. (2004) Sleepiness of Occupational Drivers. Industrial Health, 43, pp. 30-33
  90. Philip, P., Vervialle, F., Le Breton, P., Taillard, J. & Horne, J.A. (2001) Fatigue, alcohol, and serious road crashes in France: factorial study of national data. British Medical Journal, 322, pp. 829-830
  91. Philip, P., Sagaspe, P., Moore, N., Taillard, J. Charles, A., Guillleminault, C. & Bioulac, B. (2005) Fatigue, sleep restriction and driving performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, pp. 473-478
  92. Reyner, L.A. & Horne, J.A. (1998) Falling asleep whilst driving: are drivers aware of prior sleepiness? International Journal Legal Medicine, 111(3), pp. 120-123
  93. Richardson, J., Fairclough, S. H. & Fletcher, S. (1997) Driver Fatigue: An Experimental Investigation. In: Noy, Y. I. (Ed.), Ergonomics and Safety of Intelligent Driver Interfaces, 329-343. Erlbaum, Mahwah
  94. Riemersma, J. B. J., Sanders, A. F., Wildervanck, C., & Gaillard, A. W. (1977) Performance decrement during prolonged night driving. In: Mackie, R. R. (Eds). Vigilance Theory, Operational Performance, and Physiological Correlates, pp 41-58, Plenum Press, New York
  95. Rogé, J., Pébayle, T., Hannachi, S.EI., Muzet, A.(2003) Effect of sleep deprivation and driving duration on the useful visual field in younger and older subjects during simulator driving. Vision Research 43, 1465-1472
  96. ROSPA (2001) Driver fatigue and road accidents. A literature review and position paper. Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, Birmingham Accessed 15 January 2008:
  97. Sagberg, F. (1998) Many drivers fall asleep at the wheel. Institute of Transport Economics, No. 3, p. 16. Nordic Road and Transport Research, Norway
  98. Sagberg, F. (1999) Road accidents caused by falling asleep. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31, pp. 639-649
  99. Sassani, A., Findley, L.J. , Kryger, M., Goldlust, E., George, C. & Davison, T.M. (2004) Reducing motor-vehicle collisions, costs, and fatalities by treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep, 27, pp. 453-458
  100. Schagen, I.N.L.G.van (2003) Vermoeidheid achter het stuur. Report 2003-16, Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV, Netherlands, Leidschendam Accessed 15 January 2008:
  101. Stutts, J.C., Wilkins, J.W. & Vaugh, B.V. (1999) Why do people have drowsy driving crashes? Input from drivers who just did. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washington DC Accessed 4 February 2008:
  102. Stutts, J. C., Wilkins, J.W., Osberg, J. S.,Vaughn, B.V. (2003) Driver risk factors for sleep-related crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35(3), 321-331
  103. Terán-Santos, J., Jiménez-Gómez, A., Cordero-Guevara, J. & the cooperative Group Burgos-Santander (1999) The association between sleep apnea and the risk of traffic accidents. In: New England Journal of Medicine, 340(11), pp. 847-851
  104. Thiffault, P. & Bergeron, J. (2003) Fatigue and individual differences in monotonous simulated driving. Personality and Individual Differences, 34 (1), pp. 159-179
  105. Vanlaar, W., Simpson, H., Mayhew, D. & Robertson, R. (2007) Fatigued and Drowsy Driving. Attitudes, Concern and Practices of Ontario Drivers. Traffic Injury Research Foundation, Ontario
  106. Verwey, W. B.,& Zaidel, D. M. (2000) Predicting drowsiness accidents from personal attributes, eye blinks and ongoing driving behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences, 28 (1), pp. 123-142
  107. Vincent, A., Noy, I. & Laing, A. (1998) Behavioural adaptation to fatigue warning systems. Transport Canada. Canada. Paper Number 98-S2-P-2 1. Proceedings of the 16th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Windsor, CanadaAccessed 4 February 2008:
  108. WB & A Market Research (2002) 2002 “Sleep in America” Poll. National Sleep Foundation, Washington D.C. Accessed 13 February 2008:{F6BF2668-A1B4-4FE8-8D1A-A5D39340D9CB}/2002SleepInAmericaPoll.pdf
  109. Wierwille, W. W. & Ellsworth, L. A. (1994) Evaluation of driver fatigue by trained raters. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 26(4), pp. 571-578
  110. Williamson, A.M. & Feyer, A-M. (2000) Moderate sleep deprivation produces comprehensive cognitive and motor performance impairments equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, pp. 649-655
  111. Williamson, A. & Chamberlain, T. (2005) Review of on-road driver fatigue monitoring devices. Technical Report, NSW Injury Risk Management Research Centre, University of New South Wales
  112. Winsum, W. van (1999). Age-related differences in effects of drowsiness on measures of driver behaviour and performance. Rapport TM-99-C001. TNO Technische Menskunde, Netherlands, Soesterberg
  113. Wright, N.A., Stone, B.M., Horberry, T.J., & Reed, N. (2007) A review of in-vehicle sleepiness detection devices. Published project Report 157. TRL Limited, UK, Crowthorne Accessed 29 January 2008:
  114. Wylie, C.D., Shultz, T., Miler, J.C., Mitler, M.M., & Mackie, R.R. (1996) Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Fatigue and Alertness Study. Technical Summary. FHWA report FHWA-MC-97-001. FHA, Washington DC Accessed 12 February 2008:
  115. Yee, B., Campbell, A., Beasley, R., & Neill, A. (2002) Sleep disorders: a potential role in New Zealand motor vehicle accidents. Intern Med Journal, 32, pp. 297–304
© 2007 SafetyNet. All rights reserved | Disclaimer | Contact